Mushroom cultivation is considered one of the exciting and innovative agricultural fields. This agriculture is witnessing increasing interest due to the nutritional and economic benefits it provides.

In this article, we will review the process of growing mushrooms, as well as the environmental conditions and techniques used to ensure the success of this enjoyable and rewarding cultivation.

Definition of mushroom:

Mushrooms: A food product rich in protein, as it constitutes 50% of its dry weight and low in carbohydrates and fats, in addition to containing amino acids of high value, and its components are used in the pharmaceutical industry because it is rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, chlorine, iron, and iodine. To obtain a high-quality product, you must know the steps for growing it.

Mushrooms grow in forests, open gardens, and in abandoned places with high humidity and moderate temperature. They can be grown commercially in environments known as compost.

Mushroom growing supplies:

To grow mushrooms, it is necessary to provide suitable and clean supplies for the farm size, including the following:

1. Plastic bags

2. A room equipped with compost under specific conditions according to the requirements of mushroom cultivation

3. Compost or sawdust

4. Suitable lighting

5. Humidity and acidity control device

Factors necessary for mushroom cultivation:

Mushroom cultivation can be summarized in 6 peak points:

. Complete cleanliness of the production site:

 The place must be disinfected before planting using disinfectants such as Fenic or Savlon

  • Temperature:
    Mycelium grows at a Moderate heat
  • Relative humidity:
     Relative humidity levels for all types of mushrooms range between 60-90%, which is suitable for mycelium growth.
  • Ventilation
     Ventilation is very necessary for mycelium growth and fruit formation, but it is not required during the first week of mushroom cultivation.
  • The percentage of humidity and acidity in the environment:
    The humidity in the environment used for cultivation must controlled for easy air penetration, and the PH number (acidity-alkalinity) should neutral
  • Light:
    Dim or weak light is suitable for mushroom farms and should be kept away from direct sunlight

Mushroom cultivation methods and their advantages:

Internal method of growing mushrooms (plastic containers):

This method is characterized by its ease and low cost, in addition to its abundant results and continuous production throughout the year, as production reaches 200 kg within weeks (one production cycle).

Stages of growing mushrooms indoors:

1. Prepare the compost substrate, which is sawdust mixed with grains or foodstuffs (agricultural residues from other crops) in carefully studied mixing ratios, link the cycle, and adjust its humidity low

2. Sterilize the substrate by exposing it to heat for hours to kill bacteria and germs, then cooling this substrate to reach a temperature moderate Celsius within a week.

3. Prepare the appropriate spores for the type of mushroom to be cultivated, either by purchasing spores or using spores from a previous crop.

4. Pumping the spores into closed bags under appropriate conditions with openings on the sides to allow air and moisture to enter.

5. Mushroom cultivation depends on using food waste and mixing it with sawdust

The spores begin to grow and consume the nutrients in the compost over a period of two weeks. These bags are then transferred to a room equipped with the specified humidity and temperature to accelerate the growth of the mycelium through the consumption of nutrients. Within two weeks, the bags turn into a white fungus reservoir

Mycelium is very sensitive, so it is necessary to maintain an addition with specific spectrum colors, high humidity, and moderate temperature, while reducing the CO2 concentration in the room

External method of growing mushrooms:

This method is one of the methods that requires a large workforce, its results are not guaranteed, and it takes months to obtain the product.

1. Preparing the substrate (compost)

2. Distribution of the substrate on tree trunks with mushroom spores

3. Choose a period of the year where the climatic conditions are: heavy, cold rain – moderate weather – followed by bright sunshine. 4. Mushrooms grow within a few months and a large workforce is needed to harvest the crop and deliver it to stores

Canning and storage methods:

Mushrooms are a fragile food product that requires care when harvesting, transporting, preserving and displaying them in stores. Therefore, they are stored in tightly sealed metal or glass containers with a preservative medium free of salts and preservatives.

Marketing the mushroom product:

Mushroom is a food product that is in high demand by customers and is rarely available in the market, making it an expensive product. Therefore, you must choose spores of good mushroom types and adhere to the conditions for growing mushrooms to obtain a high-quality product at a high price.

You must create a market share for your farm by continuing to grow mushrooms and maintaining the required quality.

The product is marketed in small stores and large supermarkets, provided that a good preservation and packaging method is chosen.

If you are interested in this field, contact Brunano specialists to obtain assistance in the success of your project.

For communication and inquiries regarding mushroom cultivation, send us a message and request your free consultation with us now

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